1) Spur Gear-Parallel and co-planer shafts connected by gears are called spur gears. The arrangement is called spur gearing.
Spur gears have straight teeth and are parallel to the axis of the wheel. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. The advantages of spur gears are their simplicity in design, economy of manufacture and maintenance, and absence of end thrust. They impose only radial loads on the bearings.
Spur gears are known as slow speed gears. If noise is not a serious design problem, spur gears can be used at almost any speed.
2) Helical Gear-Helical gears have their teeth inclined to the axis of the shafts in the form of a helix, hence the name helical gears.
These gears are usually thought of as high speed gears. Helical gears can take higher loads than similarly sized spur gears. The motion of helical gears is smoother and quieter than the motion of spur gears.
Single helical gears impose both radial loads and thrust loads on their bearings and so require the use of thrust bearings. The angle of the helix on both the gear and the must be same in magnitude but opposite in direction, i.e., a right hand pinion meshes with a left hand gear.
3) Herringbone Gear - Herringbone gears resemble two helical gears that have been placed side by side. They are often referred to as "double helicals". In the double helical gears arrangement, the thrusts are counter-balanced. In such double helical gears there is no thrust loading on the bearings.
4) Bevel/Miter Gear-Intersecting but coplanar shafts connected by gears are called bevel gears. This arrangement is known as bevel gearing. Straight bevel gears can be used on shafts at any angle, but right angle is the most common. Bevel Gears have conical blanks. The teeth of straight bevel gears are tapered in both thickness and tooth height.
Spiral Bevel gears: In these Spiral Bevel gears, the teeth are oblique. Spiral Bevel gears are quieter and can take up more load as compared to straight bevel gears.
Zero Bevel gear: Zero Bevel gears are similar to straight bevel gears, but their teeth are curved lengthwise. These curved teeth of zero bevel gears are arranged in a manner that the effective spiral angle is zero.
5) Worm Gear- Worm gears are used to transmit power at 90° and where high reductions are required. The axes of worm gears shafts cross in space. The shafts of worm gears lie in parallel planes and may be skewed at any angle between zero and a right angle.In worm gears, one gear has screw threads. Due to this, worm gears are quiet, vibration free and give a smooth output.Worm gears and worm gear shafts are almost invariably at right angles.