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Brush DC Motor Basics

Sep 28, 2017

Brush DC Motor Basics

The operation of any Brush DC Motor is based on electromagnetism. The Brush DC Motor has two terminals; when voltage is applied across the two terminals, a proportional speed is outputted to the shaft of the Brush DC Motor. A Brush DC Motor consists of two pieces: the stator which includes the housing, permanent magnets, and brushes, and the rotor, which consists of the output shaft, windings and commutator. The Brush DC Motor stator is stationary, while the rotor rotates with respect to the Brush DC Motor stator. When power is applied to the Brush DC Motor rotor windings, the polarity of the winding and stator magnets is misaligned, and the Brush DC Motor rotor rotates until it is almost aligned with the stator magnets. As the Brush DC Motor rotor reaches alignment, the brushes in the Brush DC Motor move to the next commutator contacts, and energize the next winding. This results in a current reversal, thus causing the winding and Brush DC Motor stator magnets to misalign again. This process repeatedly is what keeps a Brush DC Motor rotating.

Carbon Brushes

A key component to the Brush DC Motor is a device known as a carbon brush, which conducts current between stationary wires and moving parts. For a Brush DC Motor to work, the coils of the Brush DC Motor rotor must be connected to complete an actual circuit. To do this, slip rings are affixed to the shaft of the Brush DC Motor, and brushes are attached to the rings, which will be used to conduct the current. Carbon brushes are considered to be both the most critical, yet weakest point of the Brush DC Motor. This is because they are highly susceptible to wear, especially when running the Brush DC Motor outside of its parameters. The wearing of carbon brushes acts as a disadvantage to the Brush DC Motor, however they can be easily replaced. Although many people consider carbon brushes in a Brush DC Motor to be a "Black Art," they still serve a great purpose when operated in the proper conditions. They tend to yield an excellent life, and perform an amazing function for your Brush DC Motor.

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